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I have OpenSuSE installed on a virtual hosted Server, running
multiple virtual websites. On normal http everything works fine. I now
would like to run one of my virtual sites on https in addition to
http. Hence I've purchased a SSL certificate.
I've copied my certificate files to the server:

SSLCertificateFile    /etc/apache2/crt/site.crt
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/key/my.key
SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ca.txt

I've enabled SSL in Apache Modules in file

APACHE_MODULES="rewrite actions alias auth_basic authn_file
authz_host authz_groupfile authz_user autoindex cgi dir env expires
include log_config mime negotiation setenvif ssl userdir php5
reqtimeout authn_core authz_core alias_module headers"

In /etc/apache2 my listen.conf says:

Listen 80
<IfDefine SSL>
<IfDefine !NOSSL>
<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
Listen 443

My vhost configuration file says:

<IfDefine SSL>
<IfDefine !NOSSL>
<VirtualHost *:443>
DocumentRoot "/srv/www/vhosts/dialogis-mediation.de/"
ServerName dialogis.coach:443
ServerAdmin juergen.tolksdorf@mac.com
ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/error_log
TransferLog /var/log/apache2/access_log
SSLEngine on
SSLProtocol all -SSLv2
SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/crt/site.crt
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/key/my.key
SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ca.txt
SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/apache2/ca.txt
<FilesMatch ".(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
<Directory "/srv/www/cgi-bin">
SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-5]"
nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown
downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
CustomLog /var/log/apache2/ssl_request_log ssl_combined

Issue right now:
Apache does not even come up with Port 443 enabled.

What I did already:
Added "Listen 443" straight to the next line after "Listen 80 in
In this case Server listens on Port 443, but gives me the error:

I'm not quite sure what I'm configuring wrong ....

Any help is highly appreciated.

This is an actual work-related problem. Users could previously "su
- userx" and was able to execute a script with user:owner permissions
as userx:groupz 760 or 540, or modify a file that's userx:groupz 740
or 640. Now, that user may no longer su to userx and must perform
tasks as a member of groupz. The group permissions need to be
changed, but the problem files must be found first. They can be found
when they fail, or hopefully you could help me find them proactively.
Any file or directory whose owner:group is userx:groupz and whose
group permissions are more restrictive than the owner permissions
might be a problem and must be looked at in the context of "business
logic". Is there a way to find all such files and directories? An
answer to this could uncover many potential problems that would
otherwise only surface when an operation that used to work now

Reading href="http://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/V3_chap02.html#tag_18_09_04_05"
rel="nofollow">POSIX specification for case conditional construct,
I see:

case word in
[(]pattern1) compound-list;;
[[(]pattern[ | pattern] ... ) compound-list;;] ...
[[(]pattern[ | pattern] ... ) compound-list]

As I understand, there will be at least one condition in body of
case, and the compound-list corresponded
with that condition must be existed.

I wrote a quick test:

$ cat test.sh
case $1 in

case $1 in
.) ;;
*) echo 1


$ for shell in /bin/*sh; do
printf '=%-18s=
' "$shell"
"$shell" ./test.sh .
=/bin/ash =
=/bin/bash =
=/bin/dash =
=/bin/heirloom-sh =
=/bin/ksh =
=/bin/lksh =
=/bin/mksh =
=/bin/pdksh =
=/bin/posh =
=/bin/schily-osh =
=/bin/schily-sh =
=/bin/sh =
=/bin/yash =
=/bin/zsh =

(/bin/heirloom-sh is href="http://heirloom.sourceforge.net/sh.html" rel="nofollow">the
Bourne shell from heirloom tool chest, /bin/schily-sh and
are href="http://schilytools.sourceforge.net/bosh.html" rel="nofollow">the
Schily Bourne shell)

It surprised me! All my known shells accepted the syntax. And

case $1 in esac

work in all shells above but ksh (That's
ksh93u+ in my system), although it href="http://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/250839/does-posix-allow-empty-compound-list-in-first-condition-and-empty-condition-in-c?noredirect=1#comment432026_250852">worked
in ksh88 as confirmed by schily.

So is it allowed by POSIX or I missed something?

highestVersion() {
for TEST_PATH in `ls -a "$/TEMP"/*.flg`
echo " you are here"
TEST_FILE=`basename "$TEST_PATH"`
echo "$TEST_FILE"

This is the file after printing TEST_FILE In this example "RMG" is
book name having 4 version. How to pick the file with latest version
among these set of files and store it in a variable?

How to iterate through this so that at the end ,the variable should
contain only Unique file with highest version number..?


In this case for example "RMG" is a book name having 4 version.
How to pick the file with latest version among these set of files and
store it in a variable?

How to iterate through this so that at the end ,the variable should
contain only Unique file with highest version number..?

Following is a simple shell script to demonstrate how environment
variables are accessible.

if [[ ${x+X} = X ]] ## If $x is set
if [[ -n $x ]] ## if $x is not empty
printf " $x = %s
" "$x"
printf " $x is set but empty
printf " %s is not set
" "$x"

However, I had the following doubts with regards to the first "if

  1. Inside the [[ operator a single "=" is used for comparison.But
    isn't = an assignment operator ?

  2. Could you please explain "${x+X}" works in this script ?

Due to an application bug as yet undiagnosed, I have several
hundred servers with a full disk. There is one file that has been
filled up with duplicate lines—not a log file, but a user
environment file with variable definitions (so I can't just delete the

I wrote a simple sed command to check for the
erroneously added lines and delete them, and tested it on a local copy
of the file. It worked as intended.

However, when I tried it on the server with the full disk, I got
approximately the following error (it's from memory, not copy and

sed: couldn't flush /path/to/file/sed8923ABC: No space left
on deviceServerHostname

Of course, I know there's no space left. That's why I'm
trying to delete stuff! (The sed command I'm using will
reduce a 4000+ line file to about 90 lines.)

My sed command is just sed -i '/myregex/d'

Is there a way I can apply this command despite the full disk?

(It must be automated, since I need to apply it to several hundred
servers as a quick-fix.)

(Obviously the application bug needs to be diagnosed, but in
the meantime the servers aren't working correctly....)

Update: The situation I faced was resolved by
deleting something else that I found out I could delete, but I'd still
like the answer to this question, which would be helpful in
the future and for other people.

/tmp is a no-go; it's on the same filesystem.

Before I freed up disk space, I did test and find out that I could
delete the lines in vi by opening the file and running
:g/myregex/d and then successfully save the changes with
:wq. It seems it should be possible to automate this,
without resorting to a separate filesystem to hold a temp file....

I have a simple script with a lot of output:

apt-get update && apt-get upgrade
} 2>&1

Starting it with ./script.sh >/dev/null 2>&1
silences it.

Can I silence the script from the inside?

Note: I barely know what I'm doing here, as such this may be
incredibly obvious, but I wasn't able to find what I was after on

Running CentOS 6.7

Yesterday I followed href="https://www.howtoforge.com/set-up-dkim-domainkeys-identified-mail-working-with-postfix-on-centos-using-opendkim"
rel="nofollow">this guide to set up opendkim on my server, and as
far as I can tell it is working.

This guide told me to get the opendkim package via


along with

tar zxvf opendkim-2.4.2.tar.gz
cd opendkim-2.4.2
./configure --sysconfdir=/etc --prefix=/usr/local --localstatedir=/var
make install

I've since found out this is not the latest version (I know I
should have checked that first -__-). I found an updated version of
the guide showing this can now be installed via yum install

I would like to move to using that method, but I don't know enough
about this stuff to know if that will overwrite things cleanly - or
even at all.

What's the safest/best way to install opendkim with yum
while removing/overwriting the manual installation
keeping my configuration ideally - but that can be redone if

I'm trying to compare two files and match on field





I would like this output:


Client: Win7 with Xming Server
installed. Using putty to access with allowing X11.

Remote: Debian 3.2.73 with GNOME as the GUI
environemt. And X11Forward=yes in

I can launch GUI tools like Gedit for example with no problems. But
I need to see the whole Desktop not just tools that I type in the
shell. I've tried typing startx but it gives errors and
doesn't work.

How can I display the whole desktop on my local machine?

Error Message
src="http://i.stack.imgur.com/dL6hh.png" alt="enter image description

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